PIB: Nigeria y petróleo

Fuente de la foto.

PIB es el nombre de la ley presentada en el parlamente nigeriano en el año 2008 y todavía sin definición. La Petroleum Industrial Bill, de ahí PIB, se puede ver resumida y bajar completa acá.  

Parece que regular el sector no es nada sencillo, aún con una legislación que a priori no parece nada pero nada "dirigista". Una explicación de las idas y vueltas que tuvo el proyecto de ley se puede leer por acá (destaco dos parrafitos que me interesaron en especial):

The failure to pass the reforms mooted in the PIB, which was intended to boost accountability and state revenue from exports, has developmental as well as financial costs. Nigeria has been unable to conduct a licensing round to award new blocks since 2007 because of uncertainties about new regulations and fiscal terms. This has limited new investment, raising the possibility that production capacity, which has been fixed at around 2.5 million barrels per day for a decade, could start to fall in the next few years. Oil companies are now looking to new fields for exploration acreage in countries such as Mozambique and Tanzania in the east and Liberia and Sierra Leone in the west. Ambitious plans for gas processing and exports from Brass and Olokola have been overtaken by more rapid development of discoveries and processing facilities in Australia and Indonesia. Technical advances such as the exploitation of shale gas and the controversial fracking (hydraulic fracturing) mean that the United States, which was formerly seen as a key market for Nigeria’s gas, is now set to become a net gas exporter. (...)

International oil companies initially backed the reform plan but now they are among the most vigorous opponents of the PIB. They want the government to excise key clauses on fiscal terms, rates at which under-explored acreage should be relinquished and terms under which companies should be able to recover investment in new discoveries before sharing the profits with the state.The companies say adjustments to existing legislation may prove simpler than trying to move forward with a flagship Bill. With clarity over investment terms, the companies argue that Nigeria would be able to bring in substantial new investment without stifling debate on some of the political issues in the industry.

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